Quoting
  • Add quotation marks around the quote
  • Include surname(s) of author(s), year of publication and page number
 
In short, for the nearly twenty years that Bismarck led Germany, he practiced the Realpolitik he had preached with such moderation and subtlety that the balance of power never broke down (Kissinger, 1994, p. 146).
 
OR
 
Kissinger (1994) concludes, for the nearly twenty years that Bismarck led Germany, he practiced the Realpolitik he had preached with such moderation and subtlety that the balance of power never broke down (p. 146).
 


For quote of 40 words or more

  • Indent the entire quotation (about a half inch)
  • Double-space
  • No quotation marks
 
Michael Sullivan (2008) highlighted the characteristics of Tang ceramics, which are precious to curators and art historians today:
 

That most of the Tang wares we enjoy today were made neither for the collector's pleasure nor even for domestic use but simply as cheap grave goods probably account for their unsophisticated charm and vigor. These qualities are most apparent in the great numbers of figurines placed in the tombs, which gave a vivid picture of daily life in Tang times. They vary in size from animals and toys a few inches high to gigantic horses, Bactrian camels, armed men, and fantastic squatting guardian creatures popularly called qutou or bixie(p. 158)


 
Paraphrasing
  • No quotation marks
  • Adding page number after the message is OPTIONAL
 
In short, by practicing the Realpolitik with moderation and subtlety during his nearly twenty-year reign, Otto von Bismarck had been able to maintain the balance of power among Germany and other European states (Kissinger, 1994).

OR
 
As Kissinger (1994) concludes, Otto von Bismarck, who had practiced the Realpolitik with moderation and subtlety during his nearly twenty-year reign, had been able to maintain the balance of power among Germany and other European states (p. 146).

 
In-text Citation with Multiple Authors
There are specific in-text citation rules for works written by multiple authors. When citing, make sure you follow the details in red below:
 
No. of Authors First Citation 
(Narrative)
Subsequent Citations  (Narrative) First Citation 
(Parenthetical)
Subsequent Citations  (Parenthetical)
2 Chu and Silva (2016) Chu and Silva (2016) (Chu & Silva, 2016) (Chu & Silva, 2016)
3 or more* Pérez et al. (2012) Pérez et al. (2012) (Pérez et al., 2012) (Pérez et al., 2012)
Group Author National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, 2019) NASA (2019) (National Aeronautics and Space Administration [NASA], 2019) (NASA, 2019)


*If there are multiple works with 3 or more authors and the same publication date, list out as many authors as needed to distinguish the works in order to avoid ambiguity. For example,

Work 1: P
érez, Moore, Tudor, Lee, Chan, and Müller (2013)
Work 2: P
érez, Moore, Tudor, Chu, Silva, and Müller (2013)

The in-text citation should be as follows:

Pérez, Moore, Tudor, Lee, et al. (2013) argue that...
Pérez, Moore, Tudor, Chu, et al. (2013) argue that...



2 or more works by different authors

......symbolic significance (Schneider, 1999; Romanov & Savoy, 2010).
 


2 or more works by the same author and with the same publication date

......Roman architecture (Beard, 2008a, 2008b).

 
Citing a Source within a Source (Secondary Source)
If you need to cite one’s work mentioned in another author’s work, it is better for you to read and cite the original work. However, if it is not possible, you could cite the secondary source in the text as follows:
 
Wong Fillmore's work (as cited in Henderson & Berla, 1996) suggested that children from mainstream and Chinese-American families earn higher grades and…

In the reference list, provide the reference of the secondary source (i.e. work of Henderson and Berla) only. 


*Secondary sources should only be used sparingly as you are encouraged to read through the original work.

 
Referencing Guide
Discovery Search
   
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Points to Note
The purpose of a reference list is to provide readers with the information necessary to identify and retrieve the works cited in your paper. All works cited in the text must be included in the reference list.

When compiling the reference list at the end of the text, please follow the rules below:
  • Open a new page after the text for the reference list
  • Arrange the reference entries in alphabetical order
  • Indent the second and subsequent lines (around 0.5 inch) of the entries from the left margin
  • Double-space the entire reference list
  • Do not add bullet point or number for each reference entry
  • Print Books

    Single Author

    Author surname, A. A. (Year). Book title (Edition). Publisher.
     
    Bailey, B. (2018). Academic writing: A handbook for international students (5th ed.). Routledge.
     

    Two Authors

    Author surname, A. A., & Author surname, B. B. (Year). Book title (Edition). Publisher.
     
    Datar, S. M., & Rajan, M. V. (2018). Horngren’s cost accounting: A managerial emphasis (16th ed.). Pearson.
     

    Multiple Authors

    Put , & before the last author
     
    Ladwig, G. B., Ackley, B. J., Makic, M. B. F., Martinez-Kratz, M. R., & Zanotti, M. (2020). Mosby’s guide to nursing diagnosis (6th ed.). Elsevier.
     

    Organization as Author

    Omit the publisher if it is the same as the author
     
    American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000
        

    Two or More Works by the Same Author and with the Same Publication Date
    Place the reference entry of a first

     
    Beard, M. (2008a). Pompeii: The life of a Roman town. Profile Books.
    Beard, M. (2008b). The fires of Vesuvius: Pompeii lost and found. The Belknap Press of Harvard University.



    Book Chapter

    Author surname, A. A. (Year). Title of a chapter. In B. B. Editor surname & C. C. Editor surname (Eds.), Book title (pp. xx-xx). Publisher.
     
    Atkinson, N. (2013). The Italian piazza: From Gothic footnote to Baroque theatre. In B. Bohn & J. M. Saslow (Eds.), A companion to Renaissance and Baroque art (pp. 561-581). Wiley-Blackwell.

     
    E-Books
    Different from APA 6th ed., publisher name has to be included in all e-book entries in 7th ed. 



    With DOI

    Author surname, A. A. (Year). Book titlePublisher. https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Leach, M. M. (2017). Counseling psychology. Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315259178
     


    Without DOI (retrieved from Most Academic Research Databases)

    Author surname, A. A. (Year). Book title. Publisher.
     
    Rubini, A. (2019). Fintech in a flash: Financial technology made easy (3rd ed.). Walter de Gruyter.
     
     *If the e-book has no DOI and is not retrieved from a database, add URL after the publisher.

     

    E-Book Chapter

    Author surname, A. A. (Year). Title of a chapter. In B. B. Editor surname & C. C. Editor surname (Eds.), Book title (pp. xx-xx). Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Nicholson, N. (2015). Primal business: Evolution, kinship, and the family firm. In S. M. Colarelli & R. D. Arvey (Eds.), The biological foundations of organizational behavior (pp. 237-267). The University of Chicago Press. https://doi.org/10.7208/chicago/9780226127293.003.0001

     *If DOI is not provided, omit "https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxx"; add URL if the e-book chapter is not retrieved from a database
     
    Journal Articles
    With DOI
    Author surname, A. A., & Author surname, B. B. (Year). Article title. Title of the Journal, Volume(Issue), pp-pp. https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Hua, N. (2015). E-commerce performance in hospitality and tourism. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management28(9), 2052-2079. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-05-2015-0247


    Without DOI (retrieved from Most Academic Research Databases)

    Author surname, A. A., & Author surname, B. B. (Year). Article title. Title of the Journal, Volume(Issue), pp-pp. 
     
    Kache, F., & Seuring, F. (2017). Challenges and opportunities of digital information at the intersection of Big Data Analytics and supply chain management. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 37(1), 10-36.

    *Different from APA 6th ed., there is no need to provide the URL of the journal home page in 7th ed. even if DOI is not available.
    *This is also the referencing format for print journal articles.



    Without DOI (with a Non-Database URL)
    Author surname, A. A., & Author surname, B. B. (Year). Article title. Title of the JournalVolume(Issue), pp-pp. https://xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Murphy, A., Malenczak, D., & Ghajar, M. (2019). Identifying challenges and benefits of online education for students with a psychiatric disability. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability32(4), 395-409. https://www.ahead.org/professional-resources/publications/
    jped/archived-jped/
    jped-volume-32


    Retrieved from Specific Databases

    The Cochrane Databse of Systematic Reviews
    Author surname, A. A, & Author surname, B. B. (Year). Article title. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Lewis, S. R., Pritchard, M. W., Thomas, C. M., & Smith, A. F. (2019). Pharmacological agents for adults with acute respiratory distress syndrome. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD004477.pub3
     
     
    UpToDate
    Author surname, A. A., & Author surname, B. B. (Year). Article title. UpToDate. Retrieval date, from https://xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Cohen, P., & Blau, J. (2020). Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19): Outpatient management in adults. UpToDate. Retrieved May 14, 2020, from https://www.uptodate.com/contents/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19-outpatient-management-in-adults

    *Fill in (YYYY) with the year of the last update date provided on the database page
    *Add a retrieval date for articles from UpToDate

     
    Online Reports
    Report by an Organization / a Government Agency as Author
    Organization / Government Agency as Author. (Year). Title of report (Report No. xxx [if given]). Publisher. https://xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Census and Statistics Department. (2019). Hong Kong energy statistics: 2018 annual report. https://www.statistics.gov.hk/pub/B11000022018
    AN
    18B0100.pdf

    *Omit the publisher if it is the same as the author


    Report by Author(s) from an Organization / a Government Agency
    Author surname, A. A., & Author surname, B. B. (Year). Title of report (Report No. xxx [if given]). Publisher. https://xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Cororaton, C. B., & Corong, E. L. (2009). Philippine agricultural and food policies: Implications for poverty and income distribution (Research Report No. 161). International Food Policy Research Institute. https://ebrary.ifpri.org/utils/getfile/collection/ p15738coll2/id/27703filename/
    27704.pdf

     
    Newspapers & Magazine Articles
    Print Newspaper Article
    Reporter surname, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Titlexx-xx.
     
    Deng, I. (2019, August 13). Age of home robots just around corner. South China Morning Post, BIZ3.
     

    Online Newspaper Article
    Reporter surname, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Newspaper Title. https://xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Constable, S. (2020, February 9). Which way to buy gold: The metal or the companies? The Wall Street Journal. https://www.wsj.com/articles/
    which-way-to-buy-gold-the-metal-or-the-companies-11581304020

    *If the news articles are published in online news websites (e.g. BBC News, CNN, Bloomberg, Reuters), the citation format should be as follows:

    Reporter surname, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. News Website. https://xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Belton, P. (2020, May 1). A breakthrough approaches for solar power. BBC News. https://www.bbc.com/news/business-51799503



    Print Magazine Article
    Author surname, A. A. (Year, Month). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue), pp-pp.
     
    Ross, J. W., Beath, C. M., & Mocker, M. (2019, Fall). Creating digital offerings customers will buy. MIT Sloan Management Review61(1), 64-69.


    Online Magazine Article
    Author surname, A. A. (Year, Month). Article title. Magazine Title. https://xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Iansiti, M., & Lakhani, K. R. (2020, January/February). Competing in the age of AI. Harvard Business Review. https://hbr.org/2020/01/competing-in-the-age-of-ai#comment-section


    *For online article, give the URL of the exact newspaper / magazine article rather than the homepage as stated in 6th ed.
     
    Webpages
    Webpage on a Website with Author(s)
    Author surname, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Title of work. Site Name. https://xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Armstrong, A. (2019, January 17). Key aspects of play in early education: Some important considerations for integrating play in early childhood learning environments. Edutopia. https://www.edutopia.org/article/key-aspects-play-early-education


    Webpage on a Website with an Organization / Government Agency as Author
    Organization / Government Agency as Author. (Year, Month Day). Title of work. Site Name. https://xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Centre for Health Protection. (2018, December 7). The health effects of air pollution. https://www.chp.gov.hk/en/healthtopics/content/460/
    3557.html

    *Omit the site name if it is the same as the author
    *Give the year and month, or the year only if no exact date is available

     
    Audiovisual Resources
    Online Video
    Screen name. (Year, Month Day). Title of work [Video]. Video Platform. https://xxxxxxxxxx
     
    UsefulCharts. (2018, February 20). History of the alphabet [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4VNVCxi9TL8
     

    Film
    Director, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of work [Film]. Production Company.
     
    Brown, M. (Director). (2016). The man who knew infinity [Film]. Paramount Pictures.
     

    Video Disc
    Producer surname, A. A. (Director). (Year). Title of work [Medium & Description]. Production Company.
     
    Sprecher, J. (Director). (2006). Numbers & quantities: Speech & skill development video modeling program [educational DVD]. TMW Media Group.


    PowerPoint Sildes
    Author surname, A. A. (Year). Title of work [PowerPoint slides]. Classroom Website / Learning Management System. https://xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Zeng, K. Y. (2016).  Introduction to mechanical engineering [PowerPoint slides]. Moodle. https://moodle.cihe.edu.hk/moodle/login/index.php

     
    Conference Proceedings
    Paper Presentation
    Author surname, A. A., & Author surname, B. B. (Year, Month, Days). Title of paper [Paper presentation]. Conference name, Location.
     
    Gavarro, A., & Hu, S. (2013, September 5-7). The acquisition of Mandarin relative clauses by preschool children [Paper presentation]. The 11th GALA Generative Approaches to Language Acquisition, Oldenburg, Germany.


    Symposium
    Contributor surname, A. A., & Contributor surname, B. B. (Year, Month, Days). Title of contribution. In C. C. surname (Chair), Title of symposium [Symposium]. Conference name, Location.
     
    Feil, S. (2019, April 25-28). Bright prospect evaluation: Using socioemotional learning skills to promote positive youth development and post-secondary attainment. In N. Zargarpour (Chair), Using the psychology of socioemotional learning to inform educational evaluations [Symposium]. Western Psychological Association 99th Annual Convention, Pasadena, CA, United States.


    Published in the format of an E-Book Chapter
    Author surname, A. A., & Author surname, B. B. (Year). Title of paper. In C. C. Editor surname & D. D. Editor surname (Eds.), Title of published proceedings (pp. xx-xx). Publisher. https://doi.org/xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Chhibber, K., Parikh, S., & Sondhi, R. (2016). Counselling in an in-patient set-up: Role in mainstream healthcare. In J. M. Montague & L. M. Tan (Eds.), Applied psychology: Proceedings of the 2015 Asian Congress of Applied Psychology (ACAP 2015) (pp. 58-77). World Scientific Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789814723398_0004

     
    Theses & Dissertations
    Retrieved Online but Not from a Database
    Author surname, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation / master’s thesis [Doctoral dissertation / Master’s thesis, Name of Institution awarding the degree]. Archive name. https://xxxxxxxxxx
     
    Qari, A. H. (2019). Assessing the quality of mobile apps for oral health: Content analysis and usability [Doctoral dissertation, Boston University]. OpenBU. https://open.bu.edu/handle/2144/37387


    Retrieved from a Database
    Author surname, A. A. (Year). Title of doctoral dissertation / master’s thesis (Accession No. / Order No.) [Doctoral dissertation / Master’s thesis, Name of Institution awarding the degree]. Database name.
     
    Miah, A. H. S. (2018). Product-based environmental metrics for use within aerospace, defence, space and security industries (ADS) (775B38C3C96084BF) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Surrey]. EBSCO Open Dissertations.

     
    Special Rules
    Please pay attention to the following special rules when citing sources in the reference list:
    • If no publication date is available, mark n.d. in parenthesis
    • If there is no author found, put the title at the beginning of the entry
    • Begin the entry with the word "Anonymous" only if the work's author is designated as anonymous
    • Delete superfluous terms when citing the publisher name (e.g. PublishersCo.Inc.) but retain Books and Press
    Referencing Guide
    Discovery Search
       
    Need Help?

    Contact us:

     
    Tel
    General Enquiries: 3653-6620 / Help Desk: 3702-4338
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